Last year, a study published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association made headlines when it asserted that sunscreen use is partially to blame for widespread vitamin D deficiency worldwide.

The research raised questions, given that consistently wearing sunscreen is one of the most common pieces of advice from physicians. Should the risk of vitamin D deficiency — which can lead to brittle bones and has been associated with insulin resistance, high blood pressure and decreased immune function, among other issues — overshadow years of that advice?